Armstrong helpers unveiled
Lance Armstrong finally named the individuals who helped him to dope during a lawsuit testimony last November, it has emerged.
Although the disgraced former cyclist admitted to cheating his way to seven Tour de France wins in an interview with Oprah Winfrey 15 months ago, at the time he refused to identify those who provided and delivered his performance-enhancing drugs.
However, Armstrong was forced to name names for the first time while speaking under oath in a case brought against him by the Acceptance Insurance Company, and transcripts of his testimony were obtained by the USA Today newspaper on Wednesday.
Armstrong is reported to have revealed that his drugs were provided by doctors Michele Ferrari, Pedro Celaya and Luis Garcia del Moral, and the trainer Pepi Marti.
He also detailed that the drugs were delivered to him by masseuse Emma O'Reilly, mechanic Julien de Vriese and Philippe Maire, the motorbike courier whom Armstrong previously and famously referred to only as "Motoman".
In addition, Armstrong admitted that Johan Bruyneel, who was his team manager for all seven of his Tour wins, took an active role in his doping.
According to Armstrong's testimony, "Johan Bruyneel participated in or assisted with Armstrong's use of PEDs [performance-enhancing drugs], and knew of that use through their conversations and acts".
Armstrong further revealed that the general manager of his US Postal Service team, Mark Gorski, and former cyclist Chris Carmichael both knew about his doping.
The testimony added: "As for Mr Gorski, it is Armstrong's belief that he was aware of doping by the USPS team. Mr Armstrong told Chris Carmichael in 1995 of his use of PEDs."
Armstrong also said that he recalled using the blood-booster EPO as early as 1995, but once again denied cheating during his comeback from retirement in 2009 and 2010.
Acceptance Insurance Company filed a lawsuit to recover US$3m in bonuses paid to Armstrong for winning the Tour between 1999 and 2001. The two parties reached an undisclosed settlement in November last year.
Armstrong was stripped of his seven Tour wins in 2012 and banned for life from competitive sport.